1. Cluer Dicey and Richard Marshall, A catalogue of maps, , copy-books, drawing-books, histories, ... printed and sold by Cluer Dicey, and Richard Marshall, at the Printing-Office, in Aldermary Church-Yard, London. [London]: Printed in the year, 1764. 104p. ; 12mo. Glasgow University Library Shelfmark: Mu34-g.4. E[nglish] S[hort] T[itle] C[atalogue] t162594.


2. Printed in the year, 1754. pp.1-56. At the Bodleian Library, Oxford (Shelfmark 258 c.109.).This is a copy that was interleaved and annotated by Thomas Percy. PDF of the Thomas Percy 1754 catalogue can be found here.


3. See P[ublic] R[ecor]d O[ffice], C12/28/53. Hill versus Dicey. Richard Marshall is listed on his own at Aldermary in The London Directory, 1779.


4. Victor Neuberg, "The Diceys and the Chapbook Trade." The Library: Transactions of the Bibliographical Society), Fifth Series, Vol. XXIV, No. 3, (September 1969) was a pioneering work. See also the same author’s Chapbooks: a guide to reference material on English, Scottish and American chapbook literature of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, (2nd ed. London, 1972); R. S. Thomson, The development of the broadside ballad (Cambridge Ph.D., 1974); Gilles Duval, "The Diceys revisited" [on their chapbooks.] Factotum, No. 35, (1992) pp. 9-11. Gilles Duval, Littérature de colportage et imaginaire collectif en Angleterre à l'époque des Dicey (1720-c.1800) (Lille, Université de Lille, 1986.)


5. Neil McKendrick, John Brewer and J. H. Plumb, eds. The birth of a consumer society: the commercialization of eighteenth-century England, (London,1983) was a pioneering work. For recent treatments, theoretical discussions, criticisms and other studies see John Brewer and Roy Porter, eds. Consumption and the world of goods (London and New York, 1994) and Ann Bermingham and John Brewer, eds., The consumption of culture 1600-1800: image , object, text, ( London and New York, 1995).


6. Compare Peter Burke, Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe, (London, 1978), pp. 256-7 with Roger Chartier, The Culture of Print. Power and the uses of print in Early Modern Europe, (London, 1989), p. 4. French publishers altered and updated the Bibliotheque Bleue.


7. Sheila O'Connell, The popular print in England 1550-1850, (London, 1999), p. 14; John Brewer, The pleasures of the imagination: English culture in the eighteenth century (London, 1997), p. xxi.


8. A full set of the Northampton Mercury is available at the Northampton Central Library, Northampton.


9. PRO C11/1425/5. Baskett versus Dicey.


10. Benjamin Okell, An abstract of A treatise of the virtues of Dr. Bateman's pectoral drops. Publish'd by vertue of the King's letters patent, under the great seal of Great-Britain. And sold by William Dicey, and Benjamin Okell, the patentee, at their wholesale warehouse, ... London. [London, 1739]. ESTC n14961.


11. John Cluer’s will, PRO PROB 11/625, shows that he had a share in these drops, which he left to his wife.


12. PRO C11/1550/50. Stationers Company versus Dicey.


13. "The Diceys revisited," Factotum: Newsletter of the XVIII century ESTC, No. 35 (August, 1992), pp. 9-11.


14. Cf. Anthony Daffy, Daffy's original and famous elixir salutis..., (London: printed with allowance for the author, 1698). [8] p. 4to. British Library, RB.23.a.6501(1). ESTC r213391.


15. Henrietta Hill, The following medicines have some years been in the first estimation for the cure of the several disorders for which they are recommended... . none are genuine, but what are sold at her house, ... and by her appointment at the following places. Mr. Joliff, ... Mr. Newberry, ... Mr. Baldwin, ... Mr. Dicey, ... Mr. Wray, ... Mr. Price, Mess. Stallard and Co. and Mr. Wedderurn and Co. ... Mr. Jackson, ... Mr. Bailey, ... Mr. Robertson, ... and Mess. T. and J. Egerton, ... [London, 1780?] ESTC t225774.


16. Northampton Mercury, 4 July, 1720.


17. PRO C12/28/25. Hill v. Dicey.


18. PRO PROB 11/829.


19. PRO PROB 11/118


20. Aulay Macaulay, The history and antiquities of Claybrook, in the county of Leicester; including the hamlets of Bittesby, Ullesthorpe, Wibtoft, and Little Wigston, (Northampton, 1791).


21. PRO PROB 11/1012.


22. The correspondence of Thomas Percy & William Shenstone , edited by Cleanth Brooks, The Percy letters, vol. 7, (New Haven, 1977), pp. 108-9.


23. John Nichols, History and Antiquities of Leicester, Vol IV, pt 1, (London, 1807) p. 115. The arms are illustrated opposite p. 107, figure 29.


24. PRO C12/9222/21 Rigby v. Dicey.


25. Advertisements in Countway Library of Medicine, Harvard University.


26. William Roberts, ed., Memoirs of the life and correspondence of Mrs. Hannah More, 3rd ed, revised, with an additional preface, 4 vols. (London, 1835) II, 49.


27. G. H. Spinney, "Cheap Repository Tracts; Hazard and Marshall edition," The Library, Vol. 20, Fourth Series, (1939-40), pp. 295-340.


28. For various discussions see Spinney, "Cheap Repository Tracts..." ; Susan Pederson, "Hannah More Meets Simple Simon: Tracts, Chapbooks, and Popular Culture in Late Eighteenth-Century England," Journal of British Studies, 25 (1986): 84-113; Gary Kelly, 'Revolution, Reaction, and the Expropriation of Popular Culture: Hannah More's Cheap Repository," Man and Nature 6 (1987): 147-59.


29. Harry B. Weiss, Hannah More's Cheap repository tracts in America, (New York Public Library, 1946).


30. A Sermon [on 1 Cor. xv. 26] preached in ... Claybrook ... at the funeral of Emma Dicey, etc. (Dicey & Sutton: Northampton, 1805), p. 2.


31. General information the Diceys in the nineteenth century can be found in Robert S. Rait , Memorials of Albert Venn Dicey: being chiefly letters and diaries, (London, 1925).


32. Such statements about the newness of their titles were not unknown among other purveyors. In her early eighteenth-century catalogue La veuve Oudot in Paris emphasised that she stocked "des petites pieces nouvelles" and was actively seeking out other materials. Catalogue des livres qui se vendent en la Boutique de la Veuve de Nicole Oudot, ( Bibliotheque Nationale, NQ 9153).


33. Neil McKendrick, "Josiah Wedgwood: An Eighteenth-Century Entrepreneur in Salesmanship and Marketing Techniques," Economic History Review, 2nd ser. Vol. XII (1960), pp. 408-433; Eric Robinson, "Eighteenth-Century Commerce and Fashion. Matthew Boulton’s Marketing Techniques," Economic History Review, 2nd ser. XV!, no. 1 (1963), pp. 39-60; McKendrick et al., Birth of a Consumer Society, pp. 31-2, 93-4, 107-119, 122-7.


34. Gilles Duval categorises some of the themes of these in the Dicey and Marshall Catalogue and in Bowles and Carver, "Les themes des images populaires chez les Dicey," Dix-Huitieme Siecle, Vol. 14 (1982) 263-276. See also his discussion of the Diceys’ prints in Factotum: Newsletter of the XVIII century ESTC, No. 40 (December, 1995) pp. 13-18. O’Connell, The popular print in England, pp. 82-89 discusses "patriotism and the status quo."


35. Catchpenny prints. 163 popular engravings from the eighteenth century. Originally published by Bowles and Carver, (New York, 1970). See also O’Connell, Popular Print, pp. 176-7 for a list of prints sold at auction at Leeds in 1716.


36. J. L. Gaunt, "Popular fiction and the ballad market in the second half of the seventeenth century", Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, Vol 72, (Charlottesville, 1978), pp. 1-13.


37. Tessa Watt, Cheap print and popular piety 1550-1640, (Cambridge, 1991) is a pioneering study of an earlier period. O’Connell, The popular print in England, pp. 68-82.


38. Margaret Spufford has published extensively on seventeenth-century chapmen. See her Small books and pleasant histories. Popular fiction and its readership in seventeenth-century England, (Cambridge, 1985) and The great reclothing of rural England: petty chapmen and their wares in the seventeenth century (London, 1984). See also her collected essays, Figures in the landscape: rural society in England, 1500-1750, (Aldershot, 1999), especially "The Peddlar and the Historian." Michael Harris, "A few shillings for small books: the experience of a flying stationer in the 18th Century," in Robin Myers and Michael Harris, eds., Spreading the word: the distribution networks of print 1550-1850, (Winchester: St. Paul's Bibliographies,1990), pp. 83-108 is an excellent discussion of eighteenth-century hawkers and newsmen.


39. Robinson, "Eighteenth-Century Commerce and Fashion...", p. 59; McKendrick, "Josiah Wedgwood... pp. 423, 425, 433; McKendrick et al, Birth of a Consumer Society, pp. 131-2.


40. Richard Landon, "‘Small Profits Do Great Things’: James Lackington and Eighteenth-Century Bookselling, Studies in 18th-Century Culture, Vol. 5 (1976) 387-399.


41. Dianne Dugaw, "The Popular marketing of ‘Old Ballads’: The Ballad revival and Eighteenth-Century Antiquarianism Reconsidered, " Eighteenth-Century Studies 21, no. 1 Autumn, 1987 pp. 71-90.


42. McKendrick et al., Birth of a Consumer Society, pp. 34-94, Robinson, "Eighteenth-Century Commerce and Fashion," p. 33.


43. A collection of old ballads: corrected from the best and most ancient copies extant: with introductions historical, critical or humorous: illustrated with copper plates, (London, 1871), pp. vii-viii. (Facsimile reprint of 1723-5 edition.)


44. Duval, "The Diceys revisited, " pp. 9-11.


45. See note 2 above.


46. Dugaw, "Popular marketing of ‘Old Ballads’ ", p. 72; Brewer, Pleasures of the Imagination, pp. xxi.


47. When Sawney Beane first made his appearance I am not sure. However, he did feature in Charles Johnson, A general history of the lives and adventures of the most famous highwaymen, murderers, street-robbers, & c. .... (London, 1736). I have not been able to consult S. Hobbs and D. Cornwell, "Sawney Bean, the Scottish cannibal." Folklore, vol. 108, (London, 1997), pp. 49-54.


48. Brewer, "Culture as Commodity" in Bermingham and Brewer, Consumption of Culture, pp. 347-8; Hugh Cunningham, Leisure in the Industrial Revolution, c.1780-c.1880, (London, 1980). See also J. H. Plumb on the commercialisation of leisure in eighteen-century England in McKendrick et al., Birth of a Consumer Society, chapter six.


49. See a general discussion by Kathleen Wilson on imperialism and identity in Bermingham and Brewer, Consumption of Culture, pp. 237-262.


50. See James Craft, The Saphirah in triumph: or, British valour display'd. Compos'd by James Craft, who lost his arm in the action, (London?, 1745); Madeline Sutherland, Mass culture in the Age of Enlightenment: the blindman's ballads of eighteenth-century Spain, (New York, 1991).


51. A good series of these is to be found for Newcastle in the Newcastle Central Library and for Coventry in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. A York printer, Thomas Lashley, found it worthwhile to issue a collection "of all the letters, ballads, advertisements, paragraphs in the news-papers, &c. that have been published by both parties since the contest about the late city and county elections first begun. ..." See Lashley's York Miscellany, (York, 1734).


52. Diana R. Mackarill, "A History of Bellman's Verses," Journal of the Printing History Society, no. 26, (1997), pp. 14-32.


53. Karen F. Beall, Kaufrufe und Strassenhändler: eine Bibliographie, (Hamburg, 1975) provides a pan-European overview.


54. Nick Groom, The making of Percy's Reliques (Oxford, 1999) has an excellent discussion of Percy’s relationship to the Diceys and his treatment of ballads, although his statement that the Dicey and Marshall Catalogue included a "staggering 3000 ballads" is confusing since these were slips and the number of "Old Ballads" was 286. For another view of Percy and other collectors, see Dave Harker, Fakesong the manufacture of British "folksong" 1700 to the present day (Milton Keynes, 1985).


55. p. 4. British Library 1140.a.26. ESTC t93206.


56. Spinney "Cheap Repository Tracts...", p. 303.


57. David Alexander, Retailing in England during the Industrial Revolution (London, 1970), pp. 88-109; Carol Shammas, The pre-industrial consumer in England and America (Oxford, 1990) pp. 224-265; John Benson and Gareth Shaw, eds., The retailing industry: Perspectives and the early modern period, (London, 1999), pp. 292-388.


58. W. W. Hadley, The Bi-centenary Record of the Northampton Mercury, (Northampton, [1920]), p. 34.


59. Hadley, Bi-centenary Record, p. 14.


60. C. Y. Ferdinand, Benjamin Collins and the Provincial Newspaper Trade in the Eighteenth Century (Oxford, 1997 contains an excellent discussion of his business, including his distribution strategies. See also the same author’s "Local distribution networks in 18th-Century England", in Myers and Harris, eds., Spreading the word.., pp. 131-149, David Shaw and Sarah Gray, "James Abree (1691?-1768) Canterbury’s First ‘Modern’ Printer", in The Reach of Print, Making, Selling and Using Print, (Winchester and Delaware, 1988) pp. 21-36.


61. C.f. Okell, An abstract... (note 10 above); A Short treatise of the virtues of Dr. Bateman's pectoral drops: the nature of the distemperr [sic] they cure, and the manner of their operation. Publish'd by the King's letter patents under the great seal of Great Britain. The seal of each bottle. To be sold only by James Wallace, in New-York, (J. Peter Zenger, New-York, [1731]) A cut of the seal, depicting a boar and with the words "By the King's patent" appears before the words "each bottle" on the title page. Bristol B856, ESTC w3996; Pennsylvania Gazette, March 17 1737, advertisement by William Shippen, chemist. See also James Harvey Young, The toadstool millionaires: a social history of patent medicines in America before federal regulation (Princeton, 1961), pp. 9 -10.


62. For example, Tales and fables selected by T. Ticklepitcher, from the works of eminent writers, both ancient and modern; ... Adorned with fifty-nine pictures, by P. Van Grave, ( London, printed and sold by R. Marshall, no.4, Aldermary Church Yard, Bow Lane; printer and bookseller to the good children of Great Britain, Ireland, and the plantations, [1777?]), ESTC n63820.


63. Timothy Breen, "An Empire of Goods: the Anglicization of colonial America, 1690-1776," Journal of British Studies xxv (October 1986), 467-99; "`Baubles of Britain': the American and consumer revolutions of the eighteenth century," Past and Present, cxix (May 1988), pp. 73-104.


64. Victor Neuberg, "Chapbooks in America: Reconstructing the Popular Reading of Early America" in Cathy N. Davidson, ed. Reading in America: Literature and Social History, (Baltimore and London 1989), p. 85.


65. Autobiography, ed. Max Farrand, (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1949), p. 15.


66. Hugh Amory and David D. Hall, eds., A history of the book in America , Vol.1: The colonial book in the Atlantic world (New York, 2000), p. 267.


67. Edwin Wolf II, The Book Culture of a Colonial American City. Philadelphia books, bookmen and booksellers (Oxford, 1988), p. 61.


68. Wolf, Book Culture... p. 68 ; William Strahan’s ledger, British Library, London, Add MSS 48800.


69. Warren McDougall, "Scottish books for America," in Myers and Harris, eds., Spreading the Word..., p. 38.


70. See above, footnote 17.


71. Neuberg, "Chapbooks in America... " pp. 91-4; Knox, Henry, A catalogue of books, imported and to be sold by Henry Knox, at the London Book-Store, a little southward of the Town-House, in Cornhill, Boston, (Boston, 1773), pp. 39-40.


72. David D. Hall in Amory and Hall, eds., History of the Book in America, p.127; Music in Colonial Massachusetts, 1630-1820 Part I: Music in public places: a conference held by the Colonial Society of Massachusetts May 17 and 18, 1973 (Boston: Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, 1985), vol. 53, p. 162.


73. Ibid., p. 163; Franklin, Autobiography, quoted in Amory and Hall, eds., History of the Book in America, p. 262.


74. In The Virgin's advice... See footnote 85, below.


75. In, for example, Merry Andrew's almanack, or, The entertaining and comical city and country register; for the year of our Lord, 1762 ... (Philadelphia, 1761?); Neuberg, "Chapbooks in America...,": pp. 87-8. See Charles Welsh and William Tillinghast, Catalogue of English and American Chap-Books and Broadside Ballads in Harvard College Library. (Cambridge, Mass., 1905), passim.


76. Pennsylvania Gazette, June 21, 1750.


77. Dicey and Marshall, Catalogue, under "Collections"; ESTC t12264.


78. Melchior, Journals, quoted in Music in Colonial Massachusetts, 1630-1820, Part II Music in Homes and Churches, (Boston: Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, 1985), vol. 54, p. 771.


79. Arthur F. Schrader, "Songs to Cultivate the Sensations of Freedom," Music in Colonial Massachusetts, Part I, pp. 105-156.


80. W. C Ford, Massachusetts Broadsides, 1639-1800, Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society Vol 75, (Boston, 1922), p. 14.


81. Arthur Palmer Hudson, "Songs of the North Carolina Regulators", William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series (Oct 1947), p. 476; see also Amory and Hall, eds., History of the Book in America, p. 457.


82. Robert D. Harlan," David Hall’s bookshop and its British sources of supply" in David Kaser, ed. Books in America’s Past (Charlottesville, 1966), pp. 9, 20-1.


83. There is a large literature the trade in European cheap print. See O’Connell Popular print in England, pp. 210-222 for an excellent introduction.


84. Rosalind Remer, Printers and men of capital: Philadelphia book publishers in the New Republic, (Philadelphia, 1996), pp. 16-17.


85. The Virgin's advice: or The Oxfordshire tragedy. In two parts shewing how a knight's daughter in Oxford was courted by a gentleman, who after many vows and promises to marry her, and threatening to kill himself, got her with child, and afterwards murder'd her. Also how a damask rose-bush grew over her grave which flourish'd winter and summer, till being touch'd by him it immediately wither'd; upon which he confess'd the murder, (Printed and sold by James Franklin at his printing house on Tillinghast's Wharf: where may be had many other sorts of verses, [Newport, R.I. 1730?,] Evans 3368, ESTC w6665.


86. Bristol B1314; ESTC w27977. See the discussion in Music in Colonial Massachusetts, Part I, pp. 304ff.


87. Isaiah Thomas, The History of Printing in America. With a biography of printers, and an account of newspapers, (Worcester, Mass., 1810), vol. I, pp. 294-5.


88. The information provided by the on-line English Short Title Catalogue is indispensable.


89. Evans 7446, ESTC w6977. See Music in Colonial Massachusetts, Part II, p. 771.


90. Thomas L. Philbrick, "British Authorship of Ballads in the Isaiah Thomas Collection", Studies in Bibliography, Vol. 9, (Charlottesville, 1957)


91. Not in Shaw & Shoemaker or W.C. Ford, Broadsides, Not on Readex Microprints. Printed in Jamieson's Popular Ballads in 1783 and by later editors as Lord Beichan. Some British versions have "Lord Bateman was a noble Lord."


92. See the discussion and citations in Music in Colonial Massachusetts, Part I, pp. 301-4.


93. David Jafee, "Peddlers of Progress and the Transformation of the Rural North, 1760-1860", Journal of American History, Vol 78, (September 1991), p. 514.


94. ESTC t188374.


95. See Richard Butsch, The Making of American Audiences from Stage to Television, (Cambridge, Mass., 2000) p. 301 and the sources cited there. Rollo G. Silver, The American printer, 1787-1825, (Charlottesville, 1967), pp.11-15 provides some information on printers' wages.


96. See Richardson L. Wright, Hawkers & Walkers in Early America. Strolling peddlers, preachers, lawyers, doctors, players, and others, from the beginning to the Civil War ... (Philadelphia, 1927), William Gilmore, Reading Becomes a Necessity of Life: Material and Cultural Life in Rural New England, 1780-1830 (University of Tennessee Press, 1989), Jafee, "Peddlers of Progress...".


97. Amory and Hall, eds., History of the Book in America, pp. 102, 264.


98. Gilmore, Reading becomes a Necessity, pp. 176, 192-3.


99. Remer, Printers and men of capital, pp.130-6.


100. Amory and Hall, eds. History of the Book in America, p. 482.


101. Gilmore, Reading becomes a Necessity, p. 212.